Trade Liberalization, Job Flows and Gender in U.S. Manufacturing: 1990 to 2005 

Erin Hinchey is a doctoral candidate in Economics and an adjunct lecturer. This presentation represents a chapter of her dissertation. Her faculty advisor is Prof. Kara Reynolds. 

The United States has become increasingly integrated with world markets. In 1995, U.S. trade in manufactured goods accounted for just 15 percent of total GDP; by 2005, this share increased to 21 percent. During the same period, U.S. workers in import-competing sectors, particularly females, experienced significant job loss. This is the first paper to evaluate the relationship between trade liberalization and gender patterns of job creation and destruction in the United States. Using a panel regression model with industry fixed effects, I confirm that trade liberalization differentially impacts job flows for women and men. In particular, female workers in import-competing industries experience greater job destruction than male workers, while male workers in export-intensive industries experience greater job creation than females. In addition, both women and men experience lower job creation and lower employment growth rates when they are in industries with greater shares of women.

 

Does Trade with Better Institutions Enhance Economic Growth? Measuring Fuel and non-Fuel Trade Complementarities with Institutions  

Ivanova Reyes is a PhD student in Economics at American University. This research paper corresponds to her work as a consultant for the World Bank during the summer of 2011. 

New research on the linkages between trade and growth is turning its eyes towards the interactions between institutional quality and trade, and how these affect economic growth. Previous empirical results point towards a reinforcement of the effects of trade on growth via the channel of better institutions. This paper goes one step beyond and analyzes how the interactions of fuel and non-fuel trade openness with institutions affect economic growth. The findings show that for most types of institutional dimensions, fuel trade openness seems to have a counterproductive effect on growth when institutions are stronger, while the opposed effect happens when the interaction is with non-fuel trade openness. The paper estimates economic growth as a function of fuel and non-fuel trade openness, institutional factors and their interaction. Because there is endogeneity in the model, as well as serial correlation, the technique chosen was the Generalized Method of Moments for dynamic panel data developed by Arellano, Bond and Bover.

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The Research Support Group, as a part of the Center for Teaching, Research & Learning, is organizing this forum to highlight student research at American University. In addition to the research findings, this forum emphasizes research methods so students can share learning experiences with other students on campus. The Spring 2012 Student Research Forum is open to all masters and PhD students at AU. students who want to present can email ssrl@american.edu.

 

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